Online Writing Lab - (OWL)
to Dixie OWL
Research Paper Guide (PDF)
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MLA Bibliographic Style: Print Sources
Bibliographic Style: Web and other Non-Print Sources
LIBRARY AND INTERNET RESOURCES
The following sources are intended to help a student begin
research on issues such those which are often studied in English 1010 or 2010.
The list is not complete. A student wishing a greater understanding of the
library should enroll in Lib 1010, an introductory class in the use
of the library.
I. Printed Sources:
A. DSC'S BROWNING LIBRARY ONLINE COMPUTER CATALOG: Books, periodicals,
reference works, and audio-visual materials
B. OTHER RESOURCES 1. 10,000 Ideas for Term Papers, Projects, and
Reports (at Reference desk in Library) 2. Facts on File 3. Library of Congress Subject Headings
Opposing Viewpoints and Taking Sides series 5. General and subject encyclopedias
II. Online Sources
A. EBSCOhost--a collection of some 30+ databases under
one search engine
C. ProQuest Newspapers--a computer-accessed guide to magazine and newspaper
F. Global Search--This search engine searches many of
DSC's subscription databases all at once.
G. Other Internet resources such as Google (especially Google Scholar and
Google Books), and Wikipedia
H. Digital books are also accessed through ebrary
IV. Human Resources
While our library has a fair selection of books, periodicals, CD-ROM, and online
resources, the strength of our library is the group of professional, user-friendly
reference librarians who can tell you (or remind you) how to make your searches effective
and can suggest a variety of other potential resources. Ask them for help; they will
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"Parenthetical documentation"lets your reader
know in the text where borrowed information came from. It replaces the older methods of
using endnotes or footnotes. (However, footnotes can still be used to refer your reader to
supplementary information.) Simply, you refer to your source by putting essential
bibliographic information in parentheses. The simplest, standard method of documentation
is to use information which you have used on your note cards: you list the author's last
name and the page(s) from which you took information. This is done effectively by
introducing the author's name in the introductory tag before the data and then putting the
page(s) in parentheses. It can also be done by including both the author's name and the
page(s) in parentheses at the end of the paraphrased or quoted data, e.g. (Smith 211). The
following pages give more detail on how that is done and variations that may be desired or
1. The purpose of a parenthetical reference is to document a source
briefly, clearly, and accurately. Brevity can be accomplished in three ways.
A. Cite the author's last name and the page number(s) of
the source in parentheses.
One historian argues that the telephone (and
certainly the advertising that lauded its innovations) created "a new habit of
mind--a habit of tenseness and alertness, of demanding and expecting immediate
results" (Brooks 117-18).
B. Use the author's last name in your sentence and place
only the page number(s) of the source in parentheses.
Brooks points out that the telephone (and certainly
the advertising that lauded its innovations) created "a new habit of mind--a habit of
tenseness and alertness, of demanding and expecting immediate results" (117-18).
C. Give the author's last name in your sentence when you are citing the
entire work rather than a specific section or passage and omit any parenthetical
Brooks argues that the history of the telephone is characterized
by innovations that have changed public attitudes toward technology.
2. When the reference documents a long quotation set off from the text, place it at
the end of the passage but after the final period. Long (fifty words or more)
indented quotations need no quotation marks; a double-indentation on the left margin
denotes a quote. (Note: instructors may vary on asking for such long quotes to be
double-spaced or not.)
Elizabeth Hardwick's memory of the '50's serves as an apt summary
of the curiously familiar attitudes of the placid decade: Right after the war, the therapy
for all our moral discomforts was the daily recital of the sins of Communism and the
Soviet Union, and the subsequent healthy enjoyment of our own virtues, or at least our
absent sins. Nothing much was asked of us beyond reminding ourselves how good we were as a
people and a system and that we did not need to suffer the infection of despairing
3. Citing a work by an author of two or more works in your Works Cited.
A. If your list of works cited contains two or more
titles by the same author, place a comma after the author's last name, add a shortened
version of the title of the work, and then supply the relevant page numbers.
Once society reaches a certain stage of industrial
growth, it will shift its energies to the production of services (Toffler, Future 221).
B. Another solution is to cite the author's last name
and title in your sentence and then add the page numbers in a parenthetical reference.
Toffler argues in The Third Wave that society has gone through
two eras (agricultural and industrial) and is now entering another--the information age
4. Citing a work by an author who has the same last name as another author in your
Works Cited. When your list contains sources by two or more authors with the same last
name, avoid confusion by supplying the author's first name in the parenthetical reference
or in your sentence. In the list of works cited, the two authors should be alphabetized
according to first name.
Critics have often debated the usefulness of the psychological
approach to literary interpretation (Frederick Hoffman 317).
Daniel Hoffman argues that
folklore and myth provide valuable insights for the literary critic (9-15).
5. Multiple authors
A) If you are citing a book by two authors
or three authors,
you have the option of naming each author's name in the text or supplying their names in a
parenthetical reference to sustain the readability of your sentence.
Boller and Story interpret the Declaration of Independence as
Thomas Jefferson's attempt to list America's grievances against England (58).
It is difficult to find clocks with winding chains in
small towns in the Southwest (Hickory, Dickory, and Dock 329).
B) When citing a work by four or more authors,
list the last name of the first author, followed by et al. ["et al." means
Midgley et al. argue that "moral
isolationism" is, in fact, an extremely rare phenomenon (29).
6. Citing an indirect source:
If your source quotes or paraphrases another source, let the reader know
from whom the data
comes originally as well as your own source, as follows:
Einstein said he did not believe in human free will (qtd.in
7. Citing a source with no author:
If your source has no author, put a shortened version of the title (in quotes or
underlined, as in the Works Cited) in parentheses. Include pages if the original source is
paginated; eliminate them if there are none.
The newest cars combine speed with safety ("Breakthrough
7. Citing electronic sources:
Most Web sites do not give exact page numbers, and you
not cite the page number shown on your printout. If your electronic source
is not paginated, ordinarily you will cite the
work in its entirety. [Some
DSC instructors ask that you put (online) at the end
of such sources when you identify the source in a
reported on a parody of Shakespeare
performed by the Muppets.
Joanne Merrian reported on
a parody of Shakespeare performed by the Muppets
It is difficult to harmonize the political
successes with the moral lapses of many political leader in the twentieth
century ("The Moral Fabric"). [no
The article "Just Deserts"
[no author] points
out that the main punishment for bigamy is having two mothers-in-law.
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